Severe problems can be very distressing and disabling but effective treatments exist, crises and relapses can be managed and individual recovery is achievable52.
- Wellness Recovery Action Planning and similar approaches: equip people with severe problems to identify their own thoughts, behaviours and actions that evidence suggests53 keeps them well by developing their self-management skills.
- Crisis Plans: joint crisis plans substantially differ from written care plans used standardly with the Care Programme Approach as they are fully agreed and developed with staff and service user: at 6-12 month follow up, 57% patients feel more involved in their care, 60% more positive about their situation, 51% more in control of their mental illness and 41% more likely to continue treatment54.
- Personalisation: is about meeting the needs of individuals in ways that work best for them. It includes prevention, early intervention, and self-directed support where people are in control of arranging and managing their own support services28.
- Social Inclusion: Six broad categories for “action” include stigma, health/social care in reintegration, employment, local community participation, basics (housing, finance, transport), implementation. There is evidence that community projects are effective at reducing stigma and promoting inclusion when community development practitioners, supported through various partnerships, bring people together to address both their individual concerns, as well as creating new community-led resources and connections between individuals, groups and organisations55.
- Peer providers: Peer support is becoming more widespread with service users working together to support themselves and each other in a variety of settings peer support has also been used to improve the effectiveness of self-management 56. There are, however, a wide variety of definitions within peer support projects and not all have been found to be empowering or indeed genuinely peer led, some being run or led by professionals rather than service users 57. One study has shown peer support reduces inpatient bed use58.